Readers Writers Problem – Critical Section Problem

The readers-writers problem is a classical problem of process synchronization, it relates to a data set such as a file that is shared between more than one process at a time. Among these various processes, some are Readers – which can only read the data set; they do not perform any updates, some are Writers […]

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Producer Consumer Problem

The producer consumer problem is a synchronization problem. There is one Producer in the producer-consumer problem, Producer is producing some items, whereas there is one Consumer that is consuming the items produced by the Producer. The same memory buffer is shared by both producers and consumers which is of fixed-size. The task of the Producer […]

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Peterson’s Solution – Solutions for Critical Section Problem

Case 1: turn = 0 or 1 This solution allows Mutual Exclusion for 2 process. But there is strict alteration, P1 then P2 and so on… Means No progress. Therefore, It is not a correct solution. Here, processes are never asked whether it want to enter the c.s. or not.   Case 2: Lets say, […]

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Network Switching – Data Communication and Networking

Switching is process to forward packets coming in from one port to a port leading towards the destination. When data comes on a port it is called ingress, and when data leaves a port or goes out it is called egress. A communication system may include number of switches and nodes. At broad level, switching […]

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Multiplexing – Data Communication and Networking

Multiplexing which means multiple sources but one link. Multiplexing is a technique used to combine and send the multiple data streams over a single medium. The process of combining the data streams is known as multiplexing and hardware used for multiplexing is known as a multiplexer. Multiplexing is achieved by using a device called Multiplexer […]

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Process Synchronization – Operating System

On the basis of synchronization, processes are categorized as one of the following two types: Independent Process : Execution of one process does not affects the execution of other processes. Cooperative Process : Execution of one process affects the execution of other processes. Process synchronization problem arises in the case of Cooperative process also because […]

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Transmission Media – Data Communication and Networking

Transmission media is a communication channel that carries theinformation from the sender to the receiver. Data is transmitted through theelectromagnetic signals. The transmission media is available in the lowest layer of the OSI reference model, i.e., Physical layer. Guided Transmission Media It is defined as the physical medium through which the signals are transmitted.It is […]

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Threads – Operating System

Thread is a single sequence stream within a process (light weight process). A thread is a flow of execution through the process code, with its own program counter that keeps track of which instruction to execute next, system registers which hold its current working variables, and a stack which contains the execution history. Thread are […]

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Computer Network Models – Data Communication

Networking engineering is a complicated task, which involves software,firmware, chip level engineering, hardware, and electric pulses. To ease network engineering, the whole networking concept is divided into multiple layers. Each layer is involved in some particular task and is independent of all other layers. But as a whole, almost all networking tasks depend on all […]

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Cpu Scheduling Algorithms – Operating System

Basic Terminologies Burst Time / Execution Time. Waiting Time Arrival Time Exit Time Turnaround Time Turnaround Time = Exit Time – Arrival Time = Burst Time + Waiting Time Waiting Time = Turnaround Time – Burst Time Response Time : Time between a process enters ready queue and get scheduled on the CPU for the […]

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